"Man, in truth, is himself a sacrifice."


(1253 A.D. to 1325 A.D.) (The Parrot of Hind)

(5) Writings and Works:

Works of Khusro can be classified into four categories–Diwan work, romantic work, historical work and prose works. Khusro was well conversant in Arabic Persian and Hindi. He was proud of it. He is also famous for many verse-riddles, sayings, puzzles and ghazals. His Persian–Hindi dictionary entitled Khalikbari is also a famous work. He is considered a symbol of the integrated culture of India.

I. Diwans (Collection of ghazals, lyrical poems, panegerics elegies, etc.)

  1. Tohfat-us-Sighar (Gift of Youth) poem written between the 16th and 19th year of his age. Compiled in 672 A.H./1272 A.D.
  2. Wasthul Hayath (Meridian of life): Poems written between 19th and 24th year of his age. compiled in 683 A.H./1283 A.D.
  3. Ghurrathul – Kamal (Prime of perfection): The most important of the five Diwans containing poems written between the 34th and 43rd year of his age. compiled in 694 A.H./1294 A.D.
  4. Baqiya Naqiya (Remnants of Purity): Compiled in his 64th year of his age in 716 A.H./1316 A.D
  5. Nihayatul Kamal (Pinacle of Perfection): The last collection of poems compiled in 725 A.H./1325 A.D

II. Masnawis: The five masnawis modelled on the Khamsa (five masnawis) of Ilyas bin Yusuf Nizami Ganjavi (541 A.H./602 A.H./1114 A.D./1202 A.D.) and consisting of:

  1. Matlaul - Anwar (Dawn of lights) on ethics and morals.
  2. Khusro - Shirin, a legendary love story.
  3. Majnun-o-Laila, also legendary love story.
  4. Aina-e-Sikandari (Mirror of Alexander) on events in the life of Alexander the great.
  5. Hasht Behisth (Eight Paradises) Stories told by Princesses with an introduction.

The first three of these Masnawis were compiled in 699 A.H./1299 A.D. and the last two in 701 A.H./1301 A.D. and 702 A.H./1302 A.D. respectively.

III. Historical Masnawis:

  1. Qiran-us-Sadain (conjuction of two auspicious stars) composed at the request of Moizuddin Kaiqabad (687 A.H./1287-690 A.H./1290 A.D.) After the poets return from Awadh, the main theme being the encounter of kaiqabad and his father, Bughra Khan, Governor of Lakhnawti their meeting and final reconciliation. Compiled in 689 A.H./1289 A.D.
  2. Mifta-ul-Futuh (Key of victories): Describes the four victories of Jalaluddin Firoze Khilji (690 A.H./1290 A.D.-695 A.H./1295 A.D) in of one year. Compiled in 691 A.H./1291 A.D
  3. Ashiqe (Duval Rani And Khizer Khan): Story of love of Khizer Khan for Duval Rani and its tragic end, completed in 715 A.H./1315 A.D. but with a chapter added later.
  4. Nuh Sipehr (Nine Skies): Panegyrics to Mubarak Shah Khilji (716 A.H./1316 A.D.-720 A.H./1320 A.D.) divided into nine parts of unequal lengths, each called a sipehr, and describing the buildings constructed by Mubarak Shah. Compiled in 718 A.H./1318 A.D.
  5. Tughlaq Nama: Accounts of the victories of Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq and a short history of his reign. Compiled in 725 A.H./1325 A.D.

IV. Prose Works:

  1. Khazainul-Futuh (Treasuries of Victories): Contains s short history of reign of the Allauddin Khilji in which the events that took place between 695 A.H./1295 A.D. and 711 A.H./1311 A.D. are recorded. Compiled in 711 A.H./1311 A.D.
  2. Afzalul Fawaed (Greatest of Blessings): Containing the teachings of His Holiness Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia (R.A.) (637 A.H./1237 A.D.-725 A.H./1325 A.D.) with dates of his meetings with the master between 714 A.H./1314 A.D and 719 A.H./1319 A.D.
  3. Ejaz-e-Khusravi (Inspiration of Khusro): Containing five manuals on the art of writing prose and poetry and including some of his early letters to his friends. The first four manuals were compiled in 683 A.H./1283 A.D. and the last in 720 A.H./1320 A.D.


Chandogya Upanishad (3.16.1).

  1. Life History
  2. A Great Scholar and Secular Poet
  3. Path of Sufism
  4. Son of an Indian Soil
  5. Writings and Works